In 1805, following Napoleon's withdrawal from Egypt, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Selim III, appointed Mehmet Ali as the governor of Egypt. Mehmet Ali was aware that the Ottoman Empire was heading toward destruction, and therefore, he was willing to build his own kingdom independently from the Turks. He started a military campaign against the Ottomans to expand his rule and he succeeded in including Palestine under his rule. After that, Mehmet Ali declared his fellowship and dependency on the Ottoman Empire in an attempt to evade facing the Ottomans. However, declaring his fellowship didn't change the fact that his new state was actually independent from the Ottoman Empire and only is subjected to Mehmet's orders.
Mehmet Ali imposed conscription on the Egyptians and Palestinians and raised taxes. Egyptians and Palestinians revolted against the rule of Mehmet Ali opposing his oppression and arrogance to the people, but Mehmet Ali was able to put down the all revolts.